Capital letters German language
When are capital letters used in the German language and when not? There are differences in the German language compared to the Dutch language with regard to capitalization. Below is an extensive enumeration list in which whether or not a capital letter must be used, also the exceptions are described.
Differences with the Dutch language
The German language differs with regard to capitalization on a number of points with the Dutch language. These differences are shown below as clearly as possible, including an accompanying example.
|Nouns||Unlike the Dutch language, nouns in German are capitalized. An exception to this rule: when words have the ???? independent form ???? lost, they are not capitalized.||die Zuhörer (the listener)||Uns ist angst und bange (angst is a noun but in this case it has lost its independent form)|
|Months and days||Months and days are capitalized in German, unlike Dutch. There is an exception, namely derivations of days and months.||Service day||täglich außer montags (montags are NOT capitalized here)|
|Fixed connections between adjectives and nouns||With fixed connections between the adjective and a noun, the adjectives are NEVER capitalized, even if this is a derivation of a country.||der italienische Futurismus||–|
|Points of the compass||In contrast to the Dutch language, points of the compass are always capitalized in the German language.||Nordost||–|
|Wife and husband||Frau and Herr should both be written with a capital letter in German.||Frau, Herr||–|
|Personal pronouns||With personal pronouns there is a difference in capitalization.
Sie, Ihr, Seine and Eure are capitalized. du, ihr, dein, euer and sich NOT.
|Associations||Associations are capitalized in German. This applies to both adjectives and nouns.||die Akademie der Künste||–|
|German letter salutation||For the German (business) letter, write the first sentence after the salutation, with a SMALL letter. This in contrast to Dutch.||Sehr geehrte Damen und Herren,
heute habe ich gelesen, dass ?? .. (so heute must NOT be capitalized)
Similarities with the Dutch language
The German language of course also has similarities with regard to the capitalization in sentences. These agreements are shown below as clearly as possible including an accompanying example.
|First letter of sentence or title||Just like in Dutch, the first letter of a sentence, or the title, is capitalized. An exception to this rule is the use of an apostrophe or a number. An apostrophe and a number do not have a capital letter, not even the following word.||Der Arbortus (Der therefore gets a capital letter as the title of a paper)||s ist sehr gut Sie zu sehen (so both s and ist are NOT capitalized)
5 schöne Tage were es (so schöne does NOT get a capital letter)
|Names of persons||Just like in Dutch, names of persons (both first and last names) are capitalized.||Mark Bakker||–|
|Nicknames||Just like in Dutch, nicknames are capitalized.||Karl der Große (Charlemagne)||–|
|One-sided geographic names||Just like in Dutch, one-sided geographic names are capitalized.||Holland||–|
|Multi-sided geographic names||Multi-sided geographic names are also capitalized, just like in Dutch.||Cleaned States of America||–|
|Derivations of geographic names||Derivations of geographic names are capitalized in the German language.||die Deutsche Bevölkerung (the German population)||–|
|Languages||Languages are capitalized in German.||das Deutsch||–|
|Holidays||Public holidays are capitalized in German||Ostern (Easter)||–|
|royal or princely appointment||Royal or princely appointments should be capitalized in German.||die Köningliche Hochheit||–|
|Doctor’s titles||Doctor’s titles should be written in German with a capital letter.||Doktor der Rechte||–|