Grammar, linguistic naming
Words in the Dutch language can be named according to their function in different word types. This is called linguistic naming or linguistic parse. The word types that we use in the Dutch language include verbs, nouns, adverbs, articles, adjectives, conjunctions, pronouns, numerals, preposition and interjections.
What is linguistic naming?
Linguistic naming is naming all words in a sentence according to part of speech. The word types we use in the Dutch language are:
- Count words
Nouns are words that give names to people, animals, things or concepts. This also applies to own names. All words that “the”, “it” or “an” stand for are nouns. Examples of nouns are:
- Piet is going to work – Piet is the noun
- The dog sleeps – dog is the noun
- It House has been rebuilt – House is the noun
- It to work got too much for me – to work is the noun
Properties of nouns can be:
- You can make it a diminutive: Pete, dog, house
- You can put it in the plural: dogs, houses
- You can make compositions of words: dog bed, holiday home
- Verbs become a noun if you put “it” in front of it: the work, the walking, the DIY.
Articles are always used in conjunction with a noun. There are two types of articles:
- Certain articles: the
- Indefinite articles: a
- the dog (you mean a certain dog, so determined)
- a dog (can be any dog, so indefinite)
Articles indicate a gender of the noun. Words preceded by the article “de” are masculine or feminine:
- The stallion
- The mare
Words that “it” stand for are neuter or gender unknown:
- It House
- It horse
Plural nouns are always preceded by the article “de”.
Adverbs and adjectives
An adverb is a word that gives a property of another word in the sentence. This other word is no noun. There are two types of adverbs:
- Immutable adverbs: this group of words indicates time, place, direction, frequency, amount, or negation:
- He comes often too late
- He comes never too late
- He plays good football: “good” says something about “playing” and is therefore an adverb
- He’s a good soccer player: “good” says something about “soccer player” and is therefore an adjective
A conjunction connects words, sentences or phrases together. The conjunction is not part of the sentence or phrases.
I’m going to work, because I have to earn money: “because” is the conjunction. Do you want lemonade or cola ?: “or” is the conjunction.
Pronouns are words that are put in place of nouns. This allows the reader to understand the sentence better.
Example: Kees is going to run because Kees ‘car is broken and Kees has to be on time for Kees’ work. If you use pronouns, the sentence looks better: Kees will walk, because to be car is broken and he on time to be work must be.
There are different types of pronouns:
- Personal pronoun
- Possessive pronoun
- Interrogative pronoun
- Demonstrative pronoun
- Relative pronoun
- Reflexive pronoun
- Reciprocal pronoun
- Indefinite pronoun
A personal pronoun designates something or someone and is used independently. Personal pronouns are divided into:
|1st person||me, me, me||we, we, us|
|2nd person||you, you, you||you, you|
|3rd person||he, she, she, it, him, her||they, them, them, their|
A possessive pronoun indicates who owns something. Possessive pronouns are also divided into:
|1st person||my, my||our U.S|
|2nd person||your, your, your||you, your|
|3rd person||his, his, her, her||their|
There are two types of interrogative pronouns:
- Interrogative pronouns: who, what
- Who’s going there?
- What are you doing?
- Which house is it?
- Which houses are they?
Demonstrative pronouns designate something or someone. “The words” are designated by the words “that” or “this”.
Example: the man, that man (far away), this man (closer). “The words” are indicated by the words “that” and “this”.
Example: the house, that house (far away), this house (closer)
A relative pronoun provides a connection between two sentences. Relative pronouns are: who, that, who, what.
Example: The woman, That there is my aunt.
A reflexive pronoun is associated with a reflexive verb (to annoy, to adapt). A reflexive pronoun adapts to the subject.
- I pass me On
- He is annoyed herself
- We fit U.S On
Reciprocal pronouns are words that indicate reciprocity and are derived from the word “each other”. Words that are used are: each other, each other, each other, mekander. Example: They help each other
An indefinite pronoun does not indicate something concrete. Words used are: some, some, something, all, someone, some, none, enough, sufficient. Example: Some people don’t like heat.
Numbers can be divided into two types: cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers, Cardinal numbers indicate a quantity, ordinal numbers an order. In addition, there is a subdivision into certain numbers, which indicate exactly the quantity or sequence, and indefinite numbers, which do not exactly indicate the quantity or sequence.
This looks like this:
|Counting||cardinal numbers||ordinal numbers|
|certain words||one, both, six||first, sixth, tenth|
|indefinite words||much, more, most, little, less, least, so much||last, how many, umpteenth|
Prepositions indicate the relationship between two phrases in a sentence. Prepositions are usually part of a phrase where the main word is a noun.
- The book is lying on the table
- The house is standing in a new housing estate
- A preposition can also come after the phrase:
- The man is from America about
Interjections are exclamations without grammatical function. They have no connection with the rest of the sentence and can also be used separately. Examples of interjections are: shame, cheers, yeah, well, hello, come on.
- Some interjections have a communicative function: cheers, well, yeah, top
- Some interjections have an emotional charge: shit, au, yippee