The History of Margarine
Do they say “butter” to all the fat that is smeared on the bread at your house? In that case you probably don’t know the difference between butter and margarine. There is certainly a difference!
Difference between butter and margarine
Butter is animal fat and is the fat from the milk. Margarine contains no milk fat at all and is made from all kinds of fat. Compared to butter, margarine is only a “young” product. Long before humans learned to make margarine, butter and lard (pork fat) were used for baking, frying and spreading the sandwiches.
The History of Margarine
Margarine was invented in the time of Napoleon. Napoleon’s soldiers were given butter in their ration. Often that butter was already spoiled when it had to be given. To improve this, Napoleon commissioned a certain Mége-Mouriés to make a substitute for butter. It had to resemble butter and be less susceptible to spoilage Mége-Mouriés then conducted tests with beef fat.
By heating the beef fat and allowing it to cool slowly, he was able to separate the fat into two parts (fractions):
- A hard, friable fraction
- A somewhat plastic fraction with a beautiful pearl-like shine
This plastic fraction was mixed with skimmed milk by means of churning. This resulted in a product similar to butter that was spreadable. He called this product “oleomargarine”, a new, cheap and easy to store fat.
The high demand for margarine led to a shortage of beef fat, so that lard (pork fat) was later used in the preparation. Because there was also a shortage of this, methods were sought to make vegetable or animal oils suitable for margarine preparation. The invention of the so-called “hardening” made it possible to transform the liquid oil into fat (solid at room temperature). For example, the margarine industry today largely used oils for margarine control.
Types of margarine
By taking the correct ratio of fat and oil, a margarine with specific properties is created that is suitable for a specific purpose. For example, the following pastry margarines are manufactured for bakery companies as:
1. Cream margarine
This is a margarine with a short melting range and a low melting point. This margarine is soft and is able to air during it
whisk to record and hold. This margarine is never salted and has a neutral taste.
2. Cake margarine
The melting range is slightly longer than that of cream margarine. This margarine is also able to absorb and retain air during whipping. Used for cake preparation. Is also well suited for sand or rubbing. This margarine is available in salted and unsalted.
3. Waltz or speculaas margarine
This margarine is similar to cake margarine but has an even longer melting range. The special treatment makes it less likely to stick to the rollers. This margarine is also available as salted and unsalted margarine.
4. Crust margarine
This margarine has the longest melting range and is tough and plastic, making it very suitable for the preparation of crust dough. Thin layers of margarine should be formed in this dough. Crust margarines are also produced in small stick or thin sheet form with a surface treatment. This treatment is done with another fat, the melting range of which starts at a lower temperature. This allows an even better layer formation and adapted processing procedure. This margarine is available both salted and unsalted
Storage of margarine
If you store margarine for too long and / or under incorrect conditions, it will become rancid and spoil. To prevent margarine from spoiling you must:
- Do not store too long, pay attention to the expiry date
- Storage place should be cool, dry and dark.
- Process opened stock (packaging) first.
- Working hygienically, removing with clean tools
- Prevention of contamination with other raw materials
- Always close packaging properly after use
- Always process the oldest stock first