The perfect (vtt): rules and explanation
This article describes how the past participle of regular verbs is formed. The position of the past participle in the sentence, and the use of the auxiliary verbs ‘to have’ and ‘to be’ are explained. The rule of the kofschip, which determines whether the word ends with a -d or a -t, is also explained.
Perfectum (perfect present tense)
The perfect always consists of one auxiliary verb (have or are) plus one past participle (participle).
The auxiliary verb is the verb that is conjugated (the person form). With the perfect, this is always a form of having or being. This verb is conjugated according to the rules of the present tense.
Past participle (participle)
The past participle of a verb never changes. Usually it is a word that starts with ge, but there are also many irregular verbs where the past participle starts with, for example, verb or verb.
The past participle is always as far behind in the sentence as possible.
- I have got him yesterday seen.
- This morning has it properly snowed.
- Last year to be we went to France with the whole family been.
- I am asleep at noon cases.
Many verbs have an irregular past participle. The only way to apply these properly is to memorize them. The regular past participles are conjugated in a fixed way.
First it must be determined what the stem of the verb is. The trunk also becomes the ?? I form ?? because it is similar to the form of the verb used in the presens (ott) with the person ?? i ??.
The root of regular verbs is basically the infinitive minus. In many cases, the spelling has to be adjusted to keep the correct pronunciation, or to comply with certain spelling rules (for a detailed explanation of spelling and pronunciation, see spelling).
|walk||walk||The letter o doubles here to preserve pronunciation|
|to give||give||The e doubles for pronunciation. A v at the end of a syllable turns into an f|
|blow||bladder||The a doubles for the pronunciation. A z at the end of a syllable changes to an f|
|put||move||There can never be a double consonant at the end of a syllable, so the t is singular|
Now you have to check whether the last letter of the stem is in the kofschip (This only applies to consonants: -t, -k, -f, -s, -ch, -p.).
- If the last letter of the stem is in t kofschip, the past participle ends with one -t
- If the last letter of the stem is not in the kofschip, the past participle ends with one -d
The following table shows how the regular past participle is formed.
|last letter stem in ?? t kofschip:|
|ge + strain + -t|
|verb (infinitive)||to work||bluffing||to miss||boast||hijack|
|last letter stem not in ?? t kofschip:|
|ge + strain + -d|
For verbs whose stem ends in a -d or an -t, there is no extra -d or -t after the past participle (because you can never have a double consonant at the end of a syllable).
- Bet – bet – bet
- Talk – talk – talk
Verbs with a -v- or a -z- before the endings -en must look at the original letter in the verb (the -v- or the -z-) and not the last letter of the root (the -f or the -s).